Based on the Coast Artillery's experience operating heavy weapons in World War I, especially the French-made 400 mm (15.75-inch) Modèle 1916 railway howitzer, new barbette carriages were designed with an elevation of 65 degrees to allow plunging fire as enemy ships approached.  The mine component was considered to be among the principal armament of coastal defense works.. For the former, members of the 206th Coast Artillery Regiment lost seven during the battle in which the Japanese planes inflicted moderate damage to the base. In February 1901 the Artillery Corps was divided into two types: field artillery and coast artillery. Background- The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 16 October 1929. Ranges of Boston Guns and Mortars: Gun/Mortar: Yards: Miles: 16-inch Army M1919 on BC: 49,100: 27.8: As a result of this reorganization (in most cases), 46 anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) brigades, 155 AAA groups, and 13 coast artillery groups were activated, probably controlling task-organized groups of battalions. The most striking was the development of radar, which, as noted, could function in any weather or visibility. Most of the 6-inch guns were stored and were eventually deployed in World War II.. The men in the coastal batteries of Oscarsborg Fortress had other ideas. As early as 1882 the need for heavy fixed artillery for seacoast defense was noted in Chester A. Arthur's Second Annual Message to Congress where he noted: "I call your attention to the recommendation of the Secretary and the board that authority be given to construct two more cruisers of smaller dimensions and one fleet dispatch vessel, and that appropriations be made for high-power rifled cannon for the torpedo service and for other harbor defenses. They exceeded all but the 12-inch M1888 (DC) in range, and possessed wide fields of fire (360 degrees, although most were not expected to be employed in this manner). sectors). These assets made Bermuda's defense imperative to the British Empire and Commonwealth's, and later the Allies', global strategy, but British forces used for its defense were desperately needed elsewhere. Supporters- Two cannons, muzzles up, are used as supporters. The War Department formed a Board of Review that recommended an increase in strength, which resulted in 105 new CA companies in 1916–17, although these were initially undermanned. The modern era seacoast guns were emplaced in protected concrete structures and were generally more accurate than those carried on the warships, the seacoast artillery could cause more damage to the ships than they could inflict on the defenses. The mine capability may have been retained in reserve at these defenses.  The regiments were broken up into battalions in 1943–44, in line with an Army-wide policy for all units except infantry. Implementation of the Act by the Army was published in War Department Bulletin 43, dated 22 July 1918. The Japanese invaded the Philippines shortly after Pearl Harbor, bringing the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays into the war along with the other US and Filipino forces in the archipelago. The Japanese were acquiring capital ships with guns of this caliber, beginning with Kongō in 1913. In 1901, the regimental organization of the US Army artillery was abolished, and 126 companies of heavy (coast) artillery and 30 companies of light (field) artillery were established. As early as 1882 the need for heavy fixed artillery for seacoast defense was noted in Chester A. Arthur's Second Annual Message to Congress where he noted: Ninety-one 12-inch railway mortars were ordered, with 45 complete by 7 April 1919 and all major components of the remainder also complete. 11 inch Pattern 1867 coastal gun (1 C, 8 F) ... Media in category "Coastal artillery" The following 153 files are in this category, out of 153 total. Some images may be copyrighted by other authors, as described. 19th-century coastal artillery gun A 19th-century coastal artillery gun on an island off the coast of Helsinki. In 1901, the regimental organization of the US Army artillery was abolished, more companies were added, and given numerical designations. , Accelerated mobilization following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the American entry into World War II created the following regiments:, In World War II more expansion and reorganization occurred. ", In 1885 the Endicott Board was convened under the subsequent Grover Cleveland administration, chaired by Secretary of War William Crowninshield Endicott. The "coast artillery" nomenclature was dropped from the antiaircraft units' designations at this time.  Seventy-two of the Army 6-inch guns (possibly with a few additional Navy weapons) and 26 5-inch guns also removed from coast defenses were mounted on M1917 field carriages and equipped four artillery regiments in France, but none of these completed training before the Armistice. Due to rapid development of the dreadnought battleship type, a new 14-inch (356 mm) gun was introduced in a few locations, including Los Angeles, the Philippines, Hawaii, and Panama. 251st Coast Artillery Veterans Association. , After World War I all but ten of the wartime regiments were disbanded.  Also during World War I, the antiaircraft branch was born, with thirteen AA battalions (also called sectors) and six AA machine gun battalions. There was also a Coast Artillery Reserve of 14 harbor defense regiments, four railway regiments, three tractor-drawn regiments, and 42 anti-aircraft regiments in 8 AA brigades. With the 1913 renaming, Artillery Districts became regional commands, each including several coast defense commands. Nahant Sites. The big guns, the heavy artillery of the AEF, made a major contribution to victory. Firearms.  On 9 June 1925 the Coast Defense Commands were redesignated as Harbor Defense Commands via a War Department order. This would mean that the guns on Georges Island could engage enemy ships positioned roughly 12 miles from the State House in downtown Boston. In 1944, with about 2/3 of the initially projected new batteries complete and most naval threats neutralized or destroyed, work was stopped on the remaining new batteries. In the 1950s through early 1970s, the Anti-Aircraft Command and its successors operated the Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules missiles that, along with the United States Air Force's BOMARC, were the successors to the Coast Artillery in defending the US continent and friendly countries. On 5 September 1927 the previously inactivated 200th Coast Artillery (AA) was withdrawn from the North Carolina National Guard, later the designation was transferred to the New Mexico National Guard, but not activated until 1940. However, as the war's progress greatly reduced the threat from enemy surface vessels, only 21 of these were completed, and not all of them were armed. Shield- Per fess wavy Gules and Azure in chief on an oval escutcheon of the first (Gules) in front of the cannon saltirewise Or an Artillery projectile paleways within a bordure of the last (Or) in base a submarine mine of the like (Or). This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 16:56. 1931: the 41st Coast Artillery (Railway) was inactivated in Hawaii. Everyone knows that all work and no play is no fun and that’s where Coastal comes in. Defenses in Panama were authorized by the Spooner Act of 1902.  Budget reductions resulted in the disbandment of all but three of the tractor-drawn regiments and all but one railway regiment by late 1921. 16-inch coast artillery gun, Ft. Story, USA 1942 Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.  With war on the horizon, the Navy released the approximately 50 remaining guns, and on 27 July 1940 the Army's Harbor Defense Board recommended the construction of 27 (eventually 38) 16-inch two-gun batteries to protect strategic points along the US coastline, to be casemated against air attack. The colony was a vital forming-up point for trans-Atlantic convoys in both world wars. The weapon is possibly a German-made 28 cm SK L/40 gun on a coast defense mount. Description- A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Per fess wavy Gules and Azure in chief on an oval escutcheon of the first (Gules) in front of the cannon saltirewise Or an Artillery projectile paleways within a bordure of the last (Or) in base a submarine mine of the like (Or). Except for some 6-inch pedestal guns and 3-inch guns, the Endicott- and Taft-period guns were scrapped and the Coast Artillery drawn down in size. The guns of the coast artillery were built to match those carried by the warships of the era. A total of 96 8-inch guns, 129 10-inch guns, 49 12-inch guns, and 150 12-inch mortars could be taken from fixed coast defense batteries or spares. Pre-war anti-aircraft planning had been very inadequate, with few weapons allocated, and the coast defense guns had become almost irrelevant. Forty-seven 8-inch railway guns were ordered, with 18 completed by the Armistice and the remainder completed later. In the 1920s, Boston's defenses were up-gunned, with the addition of the 12-inch barbette carriage (BC) guns of Btty Gardner in Nahant. After the American entry into World War I, the Coast Artillery as a whole was ordered brought up to strength, and 71 new companies were organized by July 1917.. The Japanese invasion of the Philippines resulted in the surrender of US forces there on 9 April and 6 May 1942, including the 59th CA (HD), 60th CA (AA), 200th CA (AA), 515th CA (AA), 91st CA (HD) (PS), and 92nd CA (TD) (PS). Two times a post-1895 military base in the continental United States came under attack were the bombardments of Dutch Harbor, Alaska and Fort Stevens, Oregon by the Imperial Japanese Navy in June 1942. As the table shows, this gave the harbor defenses an outer reach of some 7 to 8 miles. Although Bermuda had been heavily fortified over the previous centuries, and hundreds of artillery pieces had been emplaced, most were hopelessly obsolete. Since Coast Artillery units were allowed to exceed authorized personnel strength while making the transition, understrength batteries were brought up to their authorized manning levels for the duration of the war. World War I Lineage. Including field artillery units deployed in coast defense, harbor defense forces peaked at 70,000 troops from spring 1942 until mid-1943. The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 and the Fall of France in June 1940 greatly accelerated US defense planning and funding. The Coastal Artillery was formed from the Archipelago Artillery, the Marine Regiment and parts of the Artillery in 1902. The CAC also operated heavy and railway artillery during World War I. Many considered the duty a privilege because it was close to the social life of San Francisco.  In 1907 the United States Army Field Artillery School at Fort Monroe became the Coast Artillery School, which operated until 1946, and in 1908, the Chief of Artillery became the Chief of Coast Artillery in the rank of major general. 82 existing heavy artillery batteries were designated as coast artillery companies, and 44 new CA companies were created by splitting existing units and filling their ranks with recruits. © 2010-2012 Paul Grigorieff. Officers were rarely qualified to command both, requiring specialization. These include only the principal guns that were used in coastal … This allowed the weapons to be used in coast defense against moving targets. Many Coast Artillery companies were withdrawn from stateside coast defenses to provide cadre for the new artillery regiments. Eight 10-inch railway mounts of 54 ordered were completed by this time, and twelve 12-inch railway mounts were completed by 1 April 1919. In 1924 the Coast Artillery Corps returned to the regimental system, and the numbered companies were returned to letter designations.  Only one regiment saw action equipped with US-made guns, the 58th Coast Artillery armed with the 8-inch howitzer M1917, based on the British BL 8-inch howitzer Mk VI. Although the Coast Artillery did their best, their weapons were poorly positioned against the direction of enemy attacks and vulnerable to air and high-angle artillery attack. A total of 61 regiments were organized; however, at least 23 of these were organized in the US shortly before the Armistice and were soon disbanded. All rights reserved. The four regiments of the 30th Railway Artillery Brigade initially remained, along with six tractor-drawn regiments equipped with the 155 mm gun M1918 (6.1 inch), developed from the French Canon de 155mm GPF (Grand Puissance Filloux, or high-powered gun designed by Filloux), a weapon these regiments used during the war. Four different batteries of coast artillery were located here, including Battery Murphy on East Point (two 16-inch guns), Battery Gardner at Fort. 1935: the 248th Coast Artillery Battalion (HD) expanded to the. Prior to 1901 each of the seven artillery regiments contained both heavy and light artillery batteries. The 56 th Coast Artillery then became the 58 th Coast Artillery on April 1, 1942 and was sent from California to Venezuela.. Later Battery C, which was my dad’s unit, was sent to Curacao on March 4, 1943 and became the 815 th Coast Artillery, while his buddies in Battery D arrived in Aruba March 11, 1943 were sent to Aruba on March 5, and became the 814 th C.A. , An extensive fire control system was developed and provided for the forts of each Artillery District.  After the war, some of the 6-inch guns were returned to coast defenses, but the 5-inch guns were withdrawn from coast defense service. Caliber (mm) Weapon name … The remaining 50 or so weapons were retained by the Navy for use on future battleships; but in 1940 a near-fiasco in the design of the Iowa-class battleships precluded their use on that class, and the guns were released to the Army. They were, for instance, a decisive factor in the final phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. 1933: the 264th Coast Artillery (HD) reorganized as the 214th CA (AA) in the Georgia National Guard. , Circa 1901 the Coast Artillery took responsibility for the installation and operation of the controlled mine fields from the Corps of Engineers; these were planted to be under observation, remotely detonated electrically, and protected by fixed guns. The Coast Artillery soldiers lived in barracks within marching or driving distance of their gun batteries. During the brief battle, two shots from the Norwegians’ 28 cm struck the lead German ship, Blücher, setting her ablaze. In order to promote esprit-de-corps, the first seven regiments inherited the lineage of the original seven regiments of artillery. In 1905, after the experiences of the Spanish–American War, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a new board on fortifications, under Secretary of War William Howard Taft. Battery Torbert (3 guns on M1896 carriages, Fort Delaware, New Castle County, Delaware, installed 1901, deactivated 1940, guns sent to Puerto Rico.)  The 14-inch turret guns of Fort Drum and the 12-inch mortars of Battery Way and Battery Geary were probably the most effective coast defense weapons in the Battle of Corregidor, but all but two of the mortars were knocked out before the Japanese landed on the island. 253rd Coast Artillery (Puerto Rico National Guard), 36th Coast Artillery, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, later Panama, 58th Coast Artillery, South America, Dutch West Indies, Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion. Coastal artillery was a critical requirement at the start of the war. If we take average range as 7.5 miles, this would be roughly the distance between Battery Stevenson at Fort Warren (the 12-inch guns on Georges Island) northerly to East Point in Nahant or southeasterly to the coast in Hingham just below the base of the Hull peninsula. [NOTE]. List of coastal artillery. Due to the continued improvement of battleships until the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty halted their construction, the Coast Artillery acquired some new 16-inch (406 mm) and 14-inch (356 mm) weapons, although in minute quantities. The Coast Artillery would alternate between small unit and regimental organization several times over its history. Stark, Major H. W., "The Delaware Coast Artillery", Description of Seacoast Guns 8, 10, 12, 14, 16-inch, American Forts Network, lists US forts worldwide, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Army_Coast_Artillery_Corps&oldid=996284480, World War I artillery of the United States, World War II artillery of the United States, Military units and formations in Bermuda in World War II, 20th-century military history of the United States, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, (10) Harbor defense regiments (units designated as battalions in 1924 are not listed), 1929: the 252nd CA Battalion (HD) reorganized as the 252nd CA Regiment (TD) in the NC National Guard, the 260th Coast Artillery (HD) reorganized as the 260th CA (AA) in the DC National Guard, and the 265th CA Battalion (HD) reorganized as the, 1930: the 251st Coast Artillery (HD) reorganized as the. During WW2, Nahant played a key role in the harbor defenses of Boston. The US forces surrendered on 6 May 1942, after destroying their weapons. Not only can you find the best camping, hunting, and fishing gear and boat accessories, but at select Sporting Goods stores we also carry a wide range of firearms, ammunition, optics, and shooting targets. , A postwar weapon deployed in more reasonable quantities was the 12-inch gun M1895 on the long-range barbette carriage M1917. Click to Show/Hide the Table of Ranges for Guns, Coast Artillery Guns: Performance Summary, Boston Index of Locations and Guns: Pre-WW2. The Corps constantly reorganized the numbered companies until 1924, but during World War I created 61 regiments and 16 brigade headquarters with many of the numbered companies as cadre, for service operating heavy and railway artillery with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) on the Western Front in France. Troops run out of underground tunnel to man guns on East Coast. The Office of the Chief of Coast Artillery was established in the rank of major general 1 July 1908 until it was abolished 9 March 1942, with functions transferred to the Commanding General, Army Ground Forces, effective 9 March 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, 2 March 1942. Most of these were disbanded immediately after the war. Bermuda had been the headquarters and main base of the Royal Navy's North America and West Indies Squadron since the independence of the United States, and the location of its dockyard. Three railway mountings for the Chilean 12-inch guns were ready for shipment by the Armistice; the remaining three barrels were retained as spares. It is a shield of red and blue parted horizontally by a wavy line; on the upper red portion of the shield is the insignia of the Coast Artillery, and on the lower blue portion a submarine mine in gold. Today the Air Defense Artillery carries the Coast Artillery's lineage, including many regiment numbers and the Oozlefinch mascot. By 1943, however, it had became clear that no country would be able to mount a credible naval threat against the United States, so this third 16-inch battery was cancelled before its gun tubes had been delivered. This force was joined with elements of 1st Bn, 95th CA (AA) Regt. New coastal artillery guns were installed… New coastal artillery guns were installed on the outlying islands protected Krepost Sveaborg from the sea (of which Kuivasaari was one), while fortified lines were constructed around the landward side of Helsinki and intended to stop any attacks from inland. Except for the early-war fighting in the Philippines, the anti-aircraft branch was the Coast Artillery's only contribution on the front lines of World War II; almost all mobile heavy artillery overseas was operated by the Field Artillery. The 16-inch guns of Btty Long on Hog Island were also added during the 1920s, using the Navy guns displaced by naval treaties between the wars, This extended the range of Boston's armament to 25 miles. Background- The device was approved on 8 November 1924. On 1 April 1945 the majority of the remaining coast artillery battalions (other than antiaircraft) were inactivated, with most personnel either transferred to their parent harbor defense commands or used to activate or fill out field artillery units. A Vickers-Armstrong design originally intended for the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo, which was cancelled in 1914.Between 1929 and 1935, Spain purchased eighteen of these guns for use as coastal artillery where they were employed in active batteries for about seventy years. These units were composed primarily of Filipino enlisted men and US officers, and garrisoned many of the coast defenses in the Philippines until the surrender of US forces there in 1942.  These were the last guns added to the Philippine defenses until 1940, as the Washington Naval Treaty prohibited additional fortifications in the Pacific.. Such shore-based artillery were used to shell attacking ships as well as invading amphibious forces. , By the end of the 1920s eight Harbor Defense Commands in less-threatened areas were completely disarmed. In 1907 the Coast Artillery Corps was established and the Field Artillery re-regimented. These guns had almost three times the range of the 12-inch DC guns emplaced only 10-15 years earlier. For the latter, battery Russell was attacked with a deck gun from the Japanese submarine I-25, but the fort's commander did not return fire, since his fire control equipment indicated the submarine was out of range, and for fear of revealing the battery's position. MS the gun … , The 16-inch guns were only the top end of the World War II program, which eventually replaced almost all previous coast defense weapons with newer (or remounted) weapons. Circular concrete platforms called "Panama mounts" were added to existing defenses to improve the utility of these guns. The National Guard had 10 harbor defense regiments, two tractor-drawn regiments, and nine anti-aircraft regiments. All 47 8-inch railway guns were deployed, but only 16 of the 91 12-inch railway mortars were deployed at any one time. , In 1924 the Coast Artillery adopted a regimental system forcewide, including National Guard and Organized Reserve components (see "Units" section below). Redeployed former Coast Artillery troops usually went to field artillery or anti-aircraft units.. The 8-inch guns and 12-inch mortars were retained on railway mountings after the war, while most of the 10-inch and 12-inch guns were returned to the coastal forts. Also in 1922, the Journal of the United States Artillery was renamed the Coast Artillery Journal. As with other American World War I units, the CAC units operated alongside French forces for the most part. The CAC units sent to France and Britain with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) were organized into a total of 11 brigades comprising 33 regiments of 24 guns each, plus a replacement regiment, nine trench mortar battalions and thirteen anti-aircraft battalions (a.k.a. The anti-aircraft and field artillery branches were later separated again and regiments eventually re-appeared.  When the war ended it was decided that few (and soon no) gun defenses were needed, and by 1948 almost all of the seacoast defenses had been scrapped. During World War 2 Finnish coastal artillery used all existing five 120-mm Canet coastal guns. Several 155mm Gun regiments (each 1,754 men) were raised or inducted commencing in 1940, and were broken up January-June 1944, with their battalions separated as independently numbered units. The Performance of Coast Artillery Guns. For as long as there were military threats from the sea and cannons to defend the land, coastal artillery has been used in many different caliber sizes. The head of the Artillery Corps became the Chief of Artillery in the rank of brigadier general with jurisdiction over both types of artillery. Coastal artillery refers to anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. Most of the reserve regiments not designated as anti-aircraft in 1925 appear to have been disbanded by World War II. The anti-aircraft mission continued with three battalions in the Contiguous United States (CONUS), one battalion in the Philippines, and a regiment in Hawaii.. The Taft program fortifications differed slightly in battery construction and had fewer numbers of guns at a given location than those of the Endicott program. The new 16-inch and 12-inch batteries of the 1920s were all in open mounts, unprotected against air attack except for camouflage.  With that responsibility the Coast Artillery began to acquire the vessels required to plant and maintain the mine fields and cables connecting the mines to the mine casemate ashore organized as a "Submarine Mine Battery" within the installation command, "submarine" meaning "underwater" in this case. The company-based organization was for flexibility, as each harbor defense command was differently equipped and a task-based organization was needed.  The larger vessels, called "mine planters", were civilian crewed until the creation of the U.S. Army Mine Planter Service (AMPS) and Warrant Officer Corps in 1918 to provide officers and engineers for the ships designated as mine planters. As the defenses were constructed, each harbor or river's installations were controlled by Artillery Districts, renamed Coast Defense Commands in 1913 and Harbor Defense Commands in 1925. About this time a severe lack of design coordination resulted in the Iowa-class battleships being unable to use the Mark 2 and Mark 3 16-inch guns, and a new gun design was required for them. The 16-inch guns were one 16-inch gun M1895 on a disappearing carriage, seven 16-inch M1919 guns (one on a disappearing carriage), four 16-inch M1920 howitzers, and ten 16"/50 caliber Mark 2 guns (including some Mark 3 guns), the last taken from weapons produced for South Dakota-class battleships and Lexington-class battlecruisers cancelled by the Washington Naval Treaty. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Twelve 7-inch ex-Navy guns and six 12-inch guns being built for Chile were also available. Prior to the December, 1941, entry of the United States into the Second World War, the United States Army and the United States Marines Corps were permitted to deploy forces to Bermuda under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, ostensibly to guard US Navy and US Army Air Forces air base sites to which the United States had been granted leases by the British Government, but with the intent of also allowing the neutral US to covertly reinforce the British Army's Bermuda Garrison. 428th Coast Artillery (AA) Regiment (Composite) An initial defense force for Canton Island was formed at Fort Kamehameha, with a detachment of Btry C, 55th CA (TD) Regt, and two 155 mm GPF guns. With only the anti-aircraft mission left, the Coast Artillery was disestablished and the anti-aircraft and field artillery branches were merged in 1950. The subsections of this section provide descriptions and images of those Coast Artillery guns and mortars that were used in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire during the period from 1898 to 1946.  Only 22 16-inch and four 14-inch M1920 railway guns were deployed in CONUS, Hawaii, and Panama by 1940. It is unclear how many additional railway guns and mortars were completed, but all 47 8-inch weapons and probably the 91 12-inch mortars were.  Activation of the National Guard and expansion of regular harbor defense regiments to wartime strength resulted in 45,000 troops assigned to this function by fall 1941. Artillery formations of the United States, Taft Board and the creation of the Coast Artillery Corps. The Swedish Coastal Artillery (Swedish: Kustartilleriet, KA) has its origin in the Archipelago Artillery that was raised in 1866. CU as gun is loaded. The rapidity of technological advances and changing techniques increasingly separated coastal defenses (heavy) from field artillery (light). 1932: the 2nd Coast Artillery transferred to. As with most US Army World War I equipment, these units were primarily equipped with French- and British-made weapons, with few American-made heavy weapons arriving in France before the Armistice. In addition, after decades of experimentation and development, largely stymied by inadequate funding, the coast artillery adopted gun data computers, primarily for the last generation of batteries. The officers were trained at the Army’s elite coast artillery school in Fort Monroe, Virginia. In 1943–44, with most of the new defenses completed, the numerous older weapons of the Endicott and Taft periods were scrapped, with their crews largely reassigned to field artillery units..  This weapon, drawn by heavy Holt tractors, introduced road and cross-country mobility to the Coast Artillery, and allowed mobile defense of areas not protected by fixed harbor defenses. 100-мм береговая пушка КСМ-65 в Бербере.jpg 918 × 611; 171 KB.  Besides new construction at most harbor defenses, the standard anti-aircraft gun was upgraded from the 3-inch gun M3 to the 90 mm gun M1.  Some of the mine planter vessels were transferred to the Navy and designated Auxiliary Minelayers (ACM, later MMA). Selected batteries of older 3-inch guns were retained throughout WW2. These were organized as the 30th Separate Artillery Brigade (Railway), also designated as the Railway Artillery Reserve (RAR), which usually operated mingled with French units in an Allied RAR. In the Utah Beach sector, for instance, 110 guns from 75 to 210 mm were arrayed, capable of destroying landing craft or armored vehicles. [NOTE] Click to Show/Hide the Table of Ranges for Guns .  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