Cooperation with the world of work and other key stakeholders is carried out in order to ensure that qualifications support is flexible and promotes efficient transition to the labour market, as well as occupational development and career change. The system consists of a steering group, anticipation groups and a network of experts. Higher education institutions decide on student admissions and admission criteria independently. Starting from 2020, one sixth of effectiveness-based funding will be granted to VET providers based on the feedback from learners. Specialist vocational qualifications (continuing VET) are for adults who usually have work experience or other prior learning. In upper secondary VET, operating costs per learner vary between EUR 6 488 for all apprenticeships (companies cover most of the costs) to EUR 27 956 in special needs VET ([23]The most recent available data of 2017.). The VET curriculum system consists of the: Before the 2018 reform, the national qualification requirements for different qualifications were often updated every five to 10 years on average or whenever necessary, either partially or completely. Equal opportunities are a long-standing fundamental principle of the Finnish education policy. Learning at the workplace can be used to acquire competence in all vocational qualifications as well as promoting further training or supplementing vocational skills. Business and administration and services both accounted for 17% of all male VET students. In the course of its work, the expert group must also consult other experts in the world of work. Internal audits, benchmarking and peer reviews are other methods employed in evaluation. Apprenticeships have been used mainly in further and specialist vocational education. The most common types of VET provider are vocational institutions (owned by municipalities, industry and the service sector) ([22]Some VET providers are foundations or limited companies; they are categorised as ‘private’ but municipalities usually have shares in such companies/foundations.). Skills anticipation in Finland. Thus, vocational institutions offer initial and continuing training both for young people and adult learners. Members of these groups are representatives of employers, employees and self-employed entrepreneurs, as well as VET providers, higher education institutions, teaching staff, researchers and educational administration. and assessments of learning outcomes. Although these institutions receive state funding, most of the costs are covered by the owners of these enterprises (or by the enterprises responsible for them). They are statutory bodies of elected officials, appointed by the Finnish National Agency for Education to manage a public duty. Source: Education Statistics Finland (Vipunen): Education requirements mainly exist in health care, teaching, rescue and security jobs. Promoting employment and self-employment are key elements of VET. The assessment criteria determine the grades awarded for units in upper secondary vocational qualifications and the standard of an acceptable performance in further and specialist qualifications. The Ministry of Education and Culture decides on study places by field of education (around 10). The quality assurance of VET consists of VET provider´s own quality management, national VET steering and external evaluation. Rapidly increasing youth unemployment globally proves that relying on traditional forms of education is not sufficient to foster vibrant economies. Flexibility of vocational qualifications has increased, for example by diversifying opportunities to include modules from other vocational qualifications (including further and specialist vocational qualifications) or university of applied sciences degrees. Furthermore, skills once acquired need to be regularly updated and kept current, in order to benefit both employers and employees. The Ministry of Education and Culture and the Finnish National Agency for Education have access to the results. Specialised (usually owned by one private company or association, e.g. The share of adults (aged 25 and above) in initial and continuing VET has been increasing both in absolute numbers and proportionally. Low reliability for ‘no response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia and Poland. A few regulated professions require a vocational qualification. 3 ([44]Duration depends on the prior learning of the student, especially in the case of further and specialist vocational programmes, and is defined in the personal competence development plan of each learner. The new funding system will gradually be introduced and will be fully operational in 2022. ), 160/180/210 competence points ([60] With the amendment to the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (532/2017) that entered into force at the beginning of 2018, a single coherent funding system was established for all VET programmes. A learning material supplement of EUR 46.80 per month (equal to approximately EUR 1 400 for three semesters) is to be granted from August 2019 onwards for VET learners if they are: All employees in a contractual and public service employment relationship are entitled to study leave when the full-time employment relationship with the same employer has lasted for at least one year ([40]In one or multiple periods.). A training agreement period can also be conducted abroad, as an exchange period, e.g. It also includes quality strategy, quality award competition, government subsidies for quality improvement, supporting materials produced by the ministry and the agency and criteria for self- and peer evaluation. At regional level, councils anticipate skills needs in the municipalities in the region. In addition, school transport subsidy is available when the distance between home and school exceeds 10 km and the monthly cost of travel is at least 54 euro. The competence assessment plan is used by teachers, guidance personnel and assessors of competence. For example, in 2019, on the basis of a monthly salary of EUR 2 000, a learner will receive a gross education allowance of EUR 1 185.34 ([41] Funding responsibility rests with teachers’ employers, mainly local authorities. In most countries, there are too many graduates with university degrees, while at the same time there is a shortage of vocational professionals. Regarding salaries and terms and conditions of employment, there are no remarkable differences between teachers in general education and VET. are determined by the Ministry of Education and Culture. There are no formal qualifications requirements for trainers in Finland. Teacher education in Finland is provided by universities or universities of applied sciences. The responsibility of education providers for anticipating and responding to labour market changes has increased, as operational targeting and steering powers ([28]It means among other things that VET providers can decide within the limits of the licence received from Ministry of Education and Culture what qualifications and training programmes to offer.) Finnish professional development programs for teachers focus on the knowledge and practical skills needed to improve the performance of teachers in vocational education and training. This preparatory education and training provides students with capabilities for applying to VET, leading to qualifications, and fosters their preconditions for, completing qualifications. The plan includes information on, for example, identification and recognition of prior learning, acquisition of missing skills, demonstrations of competence and of other skills, and the guidance and support needed. Duration depends on the prior learning of the student, especially in the case of further and specialist vocational programmes, and is defined in the personal competence development plan of each learner. Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019]. At national level, the general goals for VET and the qualifications structure ([21]Qualification structure is a system of qualifications. The language of instruction for initial and continuing VET is decided in the licence for VET provision, granted by the education ministry. (2018): 6.1% (6.0% in EU-28); it increased by 1.2 percentage points since 2008 ([16]Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019].). The following activities are essential when assuring that vocational education and training meets the requirements of the world of work. It is funded by the municipal funds and is paid either by the local apprenticeship centre or the education institution providing apprenticeship training. Another challenge is the sometimes limited shop floor experience of teachers with a university degree. Guidance and counselling start at the beginning of basic education and continue through all education levels. At national level, the Finnish National Agency for Education, which operates under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Culture, produces long-term (10+ years) national forecasts ([27] on the demand for labour and education needs in support of decision-making. Total unemployment ([15]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) Admission to further vocational qualifications is decided on a case-by-case basis, taking work experience into consideration. An adult education allowance is available to employees and self-employed people who wish to go on a study leave for at least two months. The criteria for assessment have been derived from the vocational skills requirements. Their tasks include: • analysing changing and new competence and skills needs of working life and their implications for different levels of education; • offering recommendations for the development of VET programmes; • strengthening cooperation between upper secondary VET and higher education; Continuous improvement of VET quality is a key priority in Finland. Apprenticeship training is based on the requirements of the relevant qualification, according to which the learner’s personal competence development plan is drawn up. Pre-school teachers get a bachelor's degree in educational science, the extent of which is 180 credits (ETCS). Each student´s personal competence development plan must include recognition of prior learning. Continuing VET (further and specialist programmes) provides more comprehensive and specialised competences and requires labour market experience. They also participate in quality assurance of skills demonstrations and assessment through national feedback, follow-up and evaluation data, and may also visit the skills demonstrations events, when necessary. The qualification requirements and the vocational competences form the basis for identifying the types of occupational work processes in which vocational skills for a specific qualification can be demonstrated and assessed. have been devolved to universities, universities of applied sciences, and VET providers. All programmes leading to a qualification include vocational units: In addition to the above, all initial vocational qualification programmes include units that consist of common, rather than specific, vocational competence: • communication and interaction competence; • citizenship and working life competence. Prior learning acquired in training, working life or other learning environments has to be recognised as part of the qualification. The most common type of VET providers is vocational institutions (owned by municipalities, industry and service sector) ([61]Some VET providers are foundations or limited companies; they are categorised as ‘private’ but municipalities usually have shares in such companies/foundations.). 120/150/180 competence points ([53] The specialised vocational institutions (also national private institutions) have been authorised by the Ministry of Education and Culture to provide education and training. ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. The forecasting data is also used for guidance and employment counselling to provide information regarding future employment opportunities. The development of the anticipation model has involved social partners representing the piloted sectors (the real estate and building sectors, the social, welfare and health care sectors and the tourism and catering sectors), representatives of research institutions and of various fields of education, as well as other experts in the sectors in question. Data from VET in Finland Spotlight 2016 ([3]Cedefop (2016). In Finland, the applicants willing to engage in vocational teacher education program are required to have a Master’s degree (or in some cases Bachelor’s degree) completed in a university or in a university of applied sciences and a minimum of three or five years’ work experience in a … Although there are no official data for trainers ([25]In-company trainers (nationally referred to as workplace instructors) are responsible for supervising learners during their on-the-job learning periods or apprenticeship training in enterprises.) According to population forecasts, the proportion of those aged over 65 is increasing faster than the EU average. In general education, all teachers are required a Master’s degree. Although upper secondary education is free of charge, learners are required to buy their own learning materials (for instance, books, toolsets and any other materials). The recognition of prior learning must be done in all VET qualifications: in vocational, further and specialist qualifications. VET in Finland comprises the following main features: Distinctive features ([1]Cedefop (2016). ): Relatively few professions require a specific type of education. Vocational institutions can organise their activities freely, according to the requirements of their fields or their regions, and decide on their institutional networks and other services. Most continuing training is provided free of charge and teachers enjoy full salary benefits during their participation. Vocational education in Finland refers to programs that prepare youth and adults for the workplace. programmes that comprise work-based learning but are not apprenticeships or fall under training agreement category. There is growing concern over the risk of social exclusion of young people. The popularity of vocational teacher education has been consistent over many years, largely because of the flexible arrangements for completing studies. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. The male/female share in vocational upper secondary programmes is equal. Growth in competencies for Finland: proposed objectives for degrees and qualifications for the 2020s (. A teacher’s task is to guide and motivate the learners to complete their qualifications, support them in the planning of their further studies, help them to find their strengths and develop their learning skills. The topics covered by guidance and counselling include different education and training options and the development of learners’ capabilities to make choices and solutions concerning education, training and future career. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. Studies in upper secondary VET are based on individual study plans, comprising both compulsory and optional study modules. The monthly amount before tax ([39]Learners pay taxes from their allowances if they receive income from other source(s).) Attainment of Finns aged 25 to 64 has increased significantly since 2000 and slightly more rapidly than in the EU-28 on average ([18] Trainers participate in the competence demonstrations involving trainers in learner assessment at the workplace. Education is publicly funded through public tax revenue at all levels. teachers of vocational units, teachers of common units, special needs teachers; trainers. Governance and funding of the relevant exercises are the remit of three ministries (Education and Culture, Finance, Economic Affairs and Employment). Both rates have improved in recent years ([2]Source: Statistics Finland.). An employer or another representative of a workplace or other cooperation partner may also participate in the preparation of the personal competence development plan, when required. Vocational qualifications are structured in a modular way. Volume 3: the responsiveness of European VET systems to external change (1995-2015). Source: Ministry of Education and Culture; Finnish National Agency for Education (2018). Competence assessment plans are prepared by the respective education provider for each training programme or qualification. The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Finland. All VET programmes ensure eligibility for higher education studies. The duration depends on a person´s prior learning; usually it is less than 2 years ([52]Duration depends on the prior learning of the student, especially in the case of further and specialist vocational programmes, and is defined in the personal competence development plan of each learner.). NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series. In addition, a wide range of national and regional EU-funded anticipation and forecast projects are carried out by organisations such as research institutions, labour market and industry organisations, VET providers, universities and universities of applied sciences. The Finnish National Agency for Education recommends that, where possible, people acting as workplace trainers should participate in the training of trainers. The Finnish National Agency for Education has supported teachers and learners in their distance teaching and learning. Because the Finnish system places so much emphasis on school and teacher autonomy, there are not clearly defined career ladders. The VET provider collects the feedback from learners and saves the learners´ answers in the online system that has been developed for this purpose. Key players in these activities include regional councils, the Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (ELY Centres), VET providers, and higher education institutions. The allowance is a legal right and can be granted to an applicant who has a working history of at least eight years (or at least five years by 31 July 2010), and who has been working for the same employer for at least one year. After graduating, you are a teacher who has completed the professional teacher education and training that qualifies for teaching in Finland. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. Ehdotus tutkintotavoitteista 2020-luvulle). A new Act on VET was adopted in June 2017 and entered into force on 1 January 2018. Youth unemployment is on the increase; the rate for 15 to 24 year-olds was 20% in 2014, 21.4% in 2016 and 20.4% in 2019. Demographic challenges will impact the availability of the labour force, growth of the economy and, thus, provision of welfare services. The learner can also include units from general upper secondary curriculum, other vocational qualifications (incl. The plan includes how the following aspects are to be carried out (who does what, how, where it is registered and how the student, staff and stakeholders ([36]Teachers, guidance and counselling staff and assessors of competence.) Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019]. In 2017, the former 30 national education and training committees were replaced by nine anticipating groups representing different vocational fields (see Section 3.1.3). • ensuring the quality of the implementation of competence demonstrations and assessment; • participating in the development of qualification structure and vocational qualifications; • processing learners’ rectification requests concerning competence assessments. In 2018, among 20 to 24 year-olds, 11.8% were neither in employment nor in education and training. Following this process, the Finnish National Agency for Education adopts the qualification requirements as a nationally binding regulation. While up to a third of the applicants are admitted annually, there are major variations between different fields. 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